Best Herbal Extracts

Botanical Ingredient


Synephrine is extracted from Citrus aurantium. Stanford Chemicals has been providing quality Synephrine and many other natural plant extracts for over 25 years.

SKU HE3131 Category

Synephrine Safety Tips

Handling of Synephrine should only be performed by personnel trained and familiar with handling potent active pharmaceutical ingredients. Moderate to severe irritant to the skin and eyes.


  • 1. Study of the photocatalytic transformation of synephrine: a biogenic amine relevant in anti-doping analysis.
    Medana C, Calza P, Giancotti V, Dal Bello F, Aragno M, Baiocchi C.Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012 Dec 4. [Epub ahead of print]
  • 2. A review of the human clinical studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine.
    Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Shara M.Int J Med Sci. 2012;9(7):527-38. Epub 2012 Aug 29.
  • 3. Pathogenesis of migraine: role of neuromodulators.
    D’Andrea G, D’Arrigo A, Dalle Carbonare M, Leon A.Headache. 2012 Jul-Aug;52(7):1155-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2012.02168.x. Epub 2012 Jun 1. Review.
  • 4. Effects of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) fruit extracts and p-synephrine on metabolic fluxes in the rat liver.
    Peixoto JS, Comar JF, Moreira CT, Soares AA, de Oliveira AL, Bracht A, Peralta RM.Molecules. 2012 May 16;17(5):5854-69. doi: 10.3390/molecules17055854.
  • 5. Physiological effects following administration of Citrus aurantium for 28 days in rats.
    Hansen DK, George NI, White GE, Pellicore LS, Abdel-Rahman A, Fabricant D; Food and Drug Administration.Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012 Jun 15;261(3):236-47. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 Apr 13.
  • 6. Simultaneous determination of synephrine, arecoline, and norisoboldine in Chinese patent medicine Si-Mo-Tang oral liquid preparation by strong cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography.
    Yi YN, Cheng XM, Liu LA, Hu GY, Wang ZT, Deng YD, Huang KL, Cai GX, Wang CH.Pharm Biol. 2012 Jul;50(7):832-8. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2011.637505. Epub 2012 Apr 3.
  • 7. Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: where is the evidence?
    Manore MM.Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2012 Apr;22(2):139-54. Review.
  • 8. Toxicological effects of a mixture used in weight loss products: p-synephrine associated with ephedrine, salicin, and caffeine.
    Schmitt GC, Arbo MD, Lorensi AL, Maciel ES, Krahn CL, Mariotti KC, Dallegrave E, Leal MB, Limberger RP.Int J Toxicol. 2012 Mar;31(2):184-91. doi: 10.1177/1091581811435708. Epub 2012 Mar 9.
  • 9. p-Synephrine stimulates glucose consumption via AMPK in L6 skeletal muscle cells.
    Hong NY, Cui ZG, Kang HK, Lee DH, Lee YK, Park DB.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Feb 24;418(4):720-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.01.085. Epub 2012 Jan 28.
  • 10. Detection of hazardous weight-loss substances in adulterated slimming formulations using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode-array detection.
    Rebiere H, Guinot P, Civade C, Bonnet PA, Nicolas A.Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2012;29(2):161-71. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2011.638676. Epub 2011 Dec 9.
  • 11. Molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction of synephrine from Aurantii Fructus Immaturus.
    Fan JP, Zhang L, Zhang XH, Huang JZ, Tong S, Kong T, Tian ZY, Zhu JH.Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012 Jan;402(3):1337-46. doi: 10.1007/s00216-011-5506-1. Epub 2011 Nov 16.
  • 12. A gustatory receptor involved in host plant recognition for oviposition of a             swallowtail butterfly.
    Ozaki K, Ryuda M, Yamada A, Utoguchi A, Ishimoto H, Calas D, Marion-Poll F, Tanimura T, Yoshikawa H.Nat Commun. 2011 Nov 15;2:542. doi: 10.1038/ncomms1548.
  • 13. “Ephedra-free” diet pill-induced psychosis.
    Retamero C, Rivera T, Murphy K.Psychosomatics. 2011 Nov-Dec;52(6):579-82. doi: 10.1016/j.psym.2011.06.003. No abstract available.
  • 14. Analysis of octopamine in human doping control samples.
    Thevis M, Koch A, Sigmund G, Thomas A, Schänzer W.Biomed Chromatogr. 2012 May;26(5):610-5. doi: 10.1002/bmc.1705. Epub 2011 Sep 19.
  • 15. A review of the receptor-binding properties of p-synephrine as related to its pharmacological effects.
    Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Shara M.Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2011;2011:482973. doi: 10.1155/2011/482973. Epub 2011 Aug 1. Review.
  • 16. [Determination of synephrine and arecoline contents in Xiao’er Xiaoji Zhike oral liquid].
    Kang S.Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2011 May;36(10):1298-300. Chinese.
  • 17. Gas-phase spectroscopy of synephrine by laser desorption supersonic jet technique.
    Ishiuchi S, Asakawa T, Mitsuda H, Miyazaki M, Chakraborty S, Fujii M.J Phys Chem A. 2011 Sep 22;115(37):10363-9. doi: 10.1021/jp205267c. Epub 2011 Aug 26.
  • 18. Simultaneous determination of flavanones, hydroxycinnamic acids and alkaloids in citrus fruits by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS.
    He D, Shan Y, Wu Y, Liu G, Chen B, Yao S.Food Chem. 2011 Jul 15;127(2):880-5. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.109. Epub 2011 Jan 7.
  • 19. Hypertensive Urgency Associated With Xenadrine EFX Use.
    Moaddeb J, Tofade TS, Bevins MB.J Pharm Pract. 2011 Jun 6. [Epub ahead of print]
  • 20. Developmental toxicity of Citrus aurantium in rats.
    Hansen DK, Juliar BE, White GE, Pellicore LS.Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2011 Jun;92(3):216-23. doi: 10.1002/bdrb.20308. Epub 2011 May 18.


Product Name




Molecular Formula


Molecular Weight



98% HPLC


25 kg/drum


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