Best Herbal Extracts

Botanical Ingredient


4-Hydroxyisoleucine is extracted from Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Stanford Chemicals has been providing quality 4-Hydroxyisoleucine and many other natural plant extracts for over 25 years.

SKU HE0899 Category Tag

4-Hydroxyisoleucine Safety Tips

Handling of 4-Hydroxyisoleucine should only be performed by personnel trained and familiar with handling of potent active pharmaceutical ingredients. Moderate to severe irritant to the skin and eyes.


  • 1. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-keto-pentanoate aldolase (asHPAL) from Arthrobacter simplex strain AKU 626.
    Guo L, Okai M, Mase T, Imai FL, Miyakawa T, Nagata K, Yamanaka H, Fujii H, Hibi M, Ogawa J, Tanokura M.Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2012 Aug;68(Pt 8):958-61. doi: 10.1107/S1744309112028278. Epub 2012 Jul 31.
  • 2. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine stimulates glucose uptake by increasing surface GLUT4 level in skeletal muscle cells via phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent pathway.
    Jaiswal N, Maurya CK, Venkateswarlu K, Sukanya P, Srivastava AK, Narender T, Tamrakar AK.Eur J Nutr. 2012 Oct;51(7):893-8. Epub 2012 May 19.
  • 3. A novel family of bacterial dioxygenases that catalyse the hydroxylation of free L-amino acids.
    Smirnov SV, Sokolov PM, Kodera T, Sugiyama M, Hibi M, Shimizu S, Yokozeki K, Ogawa J.FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2012 Jun;331(2):97-104. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2012.02558.x. Epub 2012 Apr 13.
  • 4. Non-insulin dependent anti-diabetic activity of (2S, 3R, 4S) 4-hydroxyisoleucine of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats.
    Haeri MR, Limaki HK, White CJ, White KN.Phytomedicine. 2012 May 15;19(7):571-4. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2012.01.004. Epub 2012 Mar 6.
  • 5. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis L-isoleucine dioxygenase for production of useful amino acids.
    Hibi M, Kawashima T, Kodera T, Smirnov SV, Sokolov PM, Sugiyama M, Shimizu S, Yokozeki K, Ogawa J.Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Oct;77(19):6926-30. doi: 10.1128/AEM.05035-11. Epub 2011 Aug 5.
  • 6. A novel L-isoleucine metabolism in Bacillus thuringiensis generating (2S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxyisoleucine, a potential insulinotropic and anti-obesity amino acid.
    Ogawa J, Kodera T, Smirnov SV, Hibi M, Samsonova NN, Koyama R, Yamanaka H, Mano J, Kawashima T, Yokozeki K, Shimizu S.Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011 Mar;89(6):1929-38. doi: 10.1007/s00253-010-2983-7. Epub 2010 Nov 11.
  • 7. Biochemical monitoring in fenugreek to develop functional food and medicinal plant variants.
    Thomas JE, Bandara M, Lee EL, Driedger D, Acharya S.N Biotechnol. 2011 Feb 28;28(2):110-7. doi: 10.1016/j.nbt.2010.09.001. Epub 2010 Sep 22.
  • 8. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli to produce (2S, 3R, 4S)-4-hydroxyisoleucine.
    Smirnov SV, Kodera T, Samsonova NN, Kotlyarova VA, Rushkevich NY, Kivero AD, Sokolov PM, Hibi M, Ogawa J, Shimizu S.Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010 Oct;88(3):719-26. doi: 10.1007/s00253-010-2772-3. Epub 2010 Jul 28.
  • 9. An Organocatalyzed enantioselective synthesis of (2S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxyisoleucine and its stereoisomers.
    Kumaraswamy G, Jayaprakash N, Sridhar B.J Org Chem. 2010 Apr 16;75(8):2745-7. doi: 10.1021/jo100233u.
  • 10. Antihyperglycaemic effect of an unusual amino acid (4-hydroxyisoleucine) in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice.
    Singh AB, Tamarkar AK, Narender T, Srivastava AK.Nat Prod Res. 2010 Feb;24(3):258-65. doi: 10.1080/14786410902836693.
  • 11. A novel l-isoleucine hydroxylating enzyme, l-isoleucine dioxygenase from Bacillus thuringiensis, produces (2S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxyisoleucine.
    Kodera T, Smirnov SV, Samsonova NN, Kozlov YI, Koyama R, Hibi M, Ogawa J, Yokozeki K, Shimizu S.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Dec 18;390(3):506-10. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.09.126. Epub 2009 Oct 20.
  • 12. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine: a plant-derived treatment for metabolic syndrome.
    Jetté L, Harvey L, Eugeni K, Levens N.Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2009 Apr;10(4):353-8. Review.
  • 13. The effect of fenugreek 4-hydroxyisoleucine on liver function biomarkers and glucose in diabetic and fructose-fed rats.
    Haeri MR, Izaddoost M, Ardekani MR, Nobar MR, White KN.Phytother Res. 2009 Jan;23(1):61-4. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2557.
  • 14. Synthesis of hydantoin analogues of (2S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxyisoleucine with insulinotropic properties.
    Sergent D, Wang Q, Sasaki NA, Ouazzani J.Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Aug 1;18(15):4332-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.06.081. Epub 2008 Jun 28.
  • 15. Glycogen resynthesis and exercise performance with the addition of fenugreek extract (4-hydroxyisoleucine) to post-exercise carbohydrate feeding.
    Slivka D, Cuddy J, Hailes W, Harger S, Ruby B.Amino Acids. 2008 Aug;35(2):439-44. Epub 2007 Aug 21.
  • 16. Synthesis of 4-hydroxyisoleucine by the aldolase-transaminase coupling reaction and basic characterization of the aldolase from Arthrobacter simplex AKU 626.
    Ogawa J, Yamanaka H, Mano J, Doi Y, Horinouchi N, Kodera T, Nio N, Smirnov SV, Samsonova NN, Kozlov YI, Shimizu S.Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Jul;71(7):1607-15. Epub 2007 Jul 7.
  • 17. A novel strategy for enzymatic synthesis of 4-hydroxyisoleucine: identification of an enzyme possessing HMKP (4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-keto-pentanoate) aldolase activity.
    Smirnov SV, Samsonova NN, Novikova AE, Matrosov NG, Rushkevich NY, Kodera T, Ogawa J, Yamanaka H, Shimizu S.FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007 Aug;273(1):70-7. Epub 2007 Jun 6.
  • 18. [Unconventional antidiabetic agents].
    Rustenbeck I.Med Monatsschr Pharm. 2007 Apr;30(4):131-7. Review. German.
  • 19. 4-hydroxyisoleucine is an unusual amino acid as antidyslipidemic and antihyperglycemic agent.
    Narender T, Puri A, Shweta, Khaliq T, Saxena R, Bhatia G, Chandra R.Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Jan 15;16(2):293-6. Epub 2005 Oct 21.
  • 20. Effects of fenugreek seed extract in obese mice fed a high-fat diet.
    Handa T, Yamaguchi K, Sono Y, Yazawa K.Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 Jun;69(6):1186-8.


Product Name




Molecular Formula


Molecular Weight


Botanical Source

Trigonella foenum-graecum L


20%, 98% HPLC


White powder


25 kg/drum


Stored in cool & dry places, protected from direct sunlight and heat.

Shelf Life

2 years


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